Biotechnology is a comprehensive discipline that ventures with the utilisation of living organisms to evolve products helpful for sustainable development. It controls cellular and molecular operations to develop products and technologies that could help in enhancing human life across the globe. It has a range of applications that concentrate on human well-being.
Biotechnology is not a new subject, but it is progressing rapidly and it has several applications on daily basis from pharmaceutical evolution to food composition and the processing of polluting junk.
Applications in Medicine
Biotechnology has a diversity of applicability in the field of medicine. Some of the biotechnology applications in medicine are:
Recombinant human insulin was one of the initial products of biotechnology. It was prepared in response to the demand for a constant and adequate worldwide supply. Recombinant human insulin substitute the animal insulins and semisynthetic insulins obtained by alteration of animal insulins.
Insulin is needed by diabetic patients to eliminate surplus sugar from the blood. Diabetic patients have a very low level of insulin or no insulin generated by the body. As a result, they require outside insulin to manage blood sugar levels.
Subsequently, it was found that the insulin generated by the pancreas of the swine can be utilised by humans. But there was not sufficient swine to produce the amounts of insulin needed. This commenced the replicating of the human insulin gene.
The particular gene series that codes for human insulin were founded in E.coli microorganism. The gene series modified the genetic composition of the E.coli cells. During 24 hours certain E.coli bacteria carrying the recombinant human insulin gene were generated. The recombinant (Artificial) human insulin was separated from E.coli cells.
Gene Therapy remains the most assuring solution to the problem of genetic diseases. Genetic therapy is utilised to handle genetic disorders normally by the injection of a standard gene or accurate gene for the faulty or dormant gene into a person with the help of carriers such as adenovirus, retrovirus, and herpes simplex virus.
The biggest example of this can be seen in COVID-19 vaccines.
The normal gene substitutes the faulty or inactive gene and takes out its functions. This treatment therapy has the immense possibility of producing a permanent remedy if it is presented in the most initial stages of life.
Medical diagnosis is also an application of biotechnology in the medical field. Several times the virus mass progresses by the time the disease is identified. So, early diagnosis and understanding of pathophysiology are crucial for an efficient cure. This can be performed with the aides of methods such as Recombinant Technology, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), etc.
In this technology, Vaccines are acquired by cell cultures and animals. These vaccines include deactivated pathogens.
Genetically modified plants can generate antigens that can be utilised as edible vaccines. Antigenic proteins from many microorganisms can be manifested in plants such as bananas and tomatoes. Genetically modified sugar beet can cure foot and oral infection of animals, transgenic bananas and tomatoes can heal diseases such as cholera and hepatitis B.
Pharmacogenomics has directed the generation of medications that are adequately suitable to an individual’s ancestral structure. It can be implemented to diseases such as depression, cancer, diabetes, asthma, HIV etc.
Application in the Farming field
Biotechnology improves crop pest endurance, improves crop herbicide endurance and encourages the adoption of more environmentally tolerable farming methods. Biotechnology. It is helping by:
Producing greater crop yields with lesser intakes;
Reduction in amounts of agricultural chemicals demanded by crops restricting the flee off of these products into the atmosphere;
Buy using biotechnology crops that require less utilisation of insecticides and that enable farmers to overcome tillage cultivated land.
Producing crops with improved nourishment profiles that help to solve vitamin and nutrient insufficiencies.
Making foods free of antigens and toxins such as mycotoxins and
Enhancing food and crop oil content to help strengthen cardiac health.
Biotechnology utilises organic methods such as fermentation and harnesses biocatalysts such as yeast, enzymes, and other microorganisms to grow microscopic manufacturing plants.
It Decreases the usage and dependence on petrochemicals and Utilizing biofuels can reduce greenhouse gas discharge.
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